What To Do If Your Car Breaks Down on the Expressway at Night

Coweta County Non-Emergency Ambulance Crash Kills Patient

STRETCHERNon-emergency medical transport crashes are often unnecessary causes of death and severe injury in Georgia. In a recent incident in Newnan, a Coweta EMS ambulance operated by American Medical Response employees, rolled over while transporting a chest pain patient to Piedmont Newnan Hospital. According to witnesses, the ambulance drove off the left side of the road, causing it to roll over. The patient, Tracy Thomas, 45, did not survive.

Failure of non-emergency medical transport personnel to follow safety rules has been the subject of serious claims in Georgia in recent years. Right next door to Coweta County, in 2013 a jury in very conservative Troup County awarded $2.5 million for the death of a profoundly disabled woman who was killed after non-emergency medical transport personnel failed to strap her in as required.

During my lifetime, emergency medical transportation has evolved from the “meat wagon” often operated by a local funeral home and driven by a high school kid who scooped up wreck victims and took them to either the funeral home or the hospital. One of my high school friends had that part-time job which involved a great deal more drama than my job sacking groceries. You can imagine how a minimally trained teenager operating a vehicle with flashing lights and siren would get into situations that made for exciting stories in homeroom on Monday. Fortunately, he survived, married well, and is now mayor of his town.

Starting in 1965 and accelerating after the Vietnam War, we have seen dramatic improvements with trained EMS and EMT personnel equipped with a great deal of life-saving technology.

With greater capacity has come higher expectations. Medical transport, either emergency or non-emergency, involves risks. Part of the risk arises from lack of use of seatbelts by EMS workers; failure to properly restrain patients and equipment; unpadded or intrusive equipment that can cause serious head-impact injuries; an structural deficiencies in ambulance design. Safety concerns have led to development of safety standards  from the National Fire Protection Association and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Georgia law has long provided that ambulance is a common carrier so long as it undertakes to carry sick, injured, or disabled persons indiscriminately, and as such is held to a standard of extraordinary diligence. With regard to personal injuries to passengers, an ambulance operator as a common carrier has absolute liability for even the unauthorized and willful acts of its employees, although the ambulance company may not be liable for an employee’s theft of a patient’s jewelry. See, e.g., Bricks v. Metro Ambulance Service, Inc., 177 Ga.App. 62, 338 S.E.2d 438 (1985).

In Georgia, both emergency and non-emergency medical transport services are governed by the Emergency Medical Services Prehospital Clinical Operating Guidelines.  The primary focus of these guidelines is appropriately on medical triage decisions to save lives. However, there is also coverage of emergency vehicle operations, incorporating the provisions of O.C.G.A  § 40-6-6. The key points are:

  • “The driver of any authorized emergency vehicle must always drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, including the patient being transported, the transport crew, and the public.”
  • In responding to an emergency call, and only when the ambulance is making use of an audible signal and use of a flashing or revolving red light visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of 500 feet to the front of such vehicle, the ambulance driver may:
    • Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation;
    • Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he or she does not endanger life or property; and
    • Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions.
    • However, this does “not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons.”
    • When operating a vehicle as “an authorized emergency vehicle”, both the warning lights and audible signal must be in use. Operating a vehicle with only one of these warning devices in use, even in a bona fide emergency, does not relieve the ambulance driver from compliance with traffic laws.
    • Certain medical conditions may require the rapid transport of the patient, without use of an audible warning device due to the patient’s condition (e.g. acute MI, preeclampsia). In circumstances where lights only are used for transport, the vehicle cannot proceed as “an authorized emergency vehicle” and must proceed in complete compliance with traffic laws, including red lights, stop signs, speed limits, etc.
    • Pediatric patients must be restrained in accordance with the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration’s “Best Practice Recommendations for Safe Transport of Children.” A key point is that, “No child or infant should ever be held in the arms or lap of parent, caregiver, or medic during transport.”
    • Guidelines for transport of patients with special health care needs include, “When moving a special needs patient, use slow, careful transfer. . . . Do not use excessive force to straighten or manipulate contracted extremities, as this may cause injury or pain to the patient. . . . Transfer the patient if possible to their medical “home” hospital. This may involve bypassing the closest facility.”

Other publications on ambulance safety state the common sense standards such as:

  •  All patients on the stretcher must be secured at all times when the vehicle is in motion or the stretcher is being carried or moved.
  • Any child transported to the hospital should be in the child’s own protective restraining device – child safety seat – when available. He/she should be placed in the device and the device should be belted to an ambulance seat. If the child actually is the patient, he/she should be secured onto the stretcher and if appropriate, kept in the child safety seat.


Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based trial attorney practicing statewide in Georgia. A former president of the State Bar of Georgia, he is lead author of Georgia Law of Torts: Trial Preparation and Practice, a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy, and chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section.

“Extreme caution” safety rule requires truckers to slow down or crawl on icy roads

As Georgia faces the prospect of a winter storm this week, we also face the prospect of truck wrecks caused by violations of an important trucking safety rule. Last year, for example, a Georgia DOT spokesman was quoted saying that every major accident in Georgia’s “Snowmageddon 2014” ice storm involved a tractor trailer.

The safety rule throughout the United States is that trucking companies and their drivers are required to exercise “extreme caution” in conditions adversely affecting traction and visibility.

truck on ice Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulation 392.14 which provides that, “Extreme caution in the operation of a commercial motor vehicle shall be exercised when hazardous conditions, such as those caused by snow, ice … adversely affect visibility or traction. Speed shall be reduced when such conditions exist. If conditions become sufficiently dangerous, the operation of the commercial motor vehicle shall be discontinued and shall not be resumed until the commercial motor vehicle can be safely operated.”

The practical interpretation of that rule, as expressed in the Commercial Driver’s License manuals of every state with only minor variations, state:

2.6.2 – Matching Speed to the Road Surface

You can’t steer or brake a vehicle unless you have traction. Traction is friction between the tires and the road. There are some road conditions that reduce traction and call for lower speeds.

Slippery Surfaces. It will take longer to stop, and it will be harder to turn without skidding, when the road is slippery. Wet roads can double stopping distance. You must drive slower to be able to stop in the same distance as on a dry road. Reduce speed by about one-third (e.g., slow from 55 to about 35 mph) on a wet road. On packed snow, reduce speed by a half, or more. If the surface is icy, reduce speed to a crawl and stop driving as soon as you can safely do so.

Identifying Slippery Surfaces. Sometimes it’s hard to know if the road is slippery. Here are some signs of slippery roads:

Shaded Areas. Shady parts of the road will remain icy and slippery long after open areas have melted.

Bridges. When the temperature drops, bridges will freeze before the road will. Be especially careful when the temperature is close to 32 degrees Fahrenheit.

Melting Ice. Slight melting will make ice wet.

Wet ice is much more slippery than ice that is not wet.

Black Ice. Black ice is a thin layer that is clear enough that you can see the road underneath it. It makes the road look wet. Any time the temperature is below freezing and the road looks wet, watch out for black ice.

Vehicle Icing. An easy way to check for ice is to open the window and feel the front of the mirror, mirror support, or antenna. If there’s ice on these, the road surface is probably starting to ice up.

Unfortunately, too often trucking companies push their drivers to stay on schedule despite ice and snow. Too often police officers working wrecks are unfamiliar with the “extreme caution” rule requiring them to slow down, and seem to think truckers are heroic in efforts to stop 80,000 tractor trailers when driving at normal highway speeds on sheets of ice. But when bad things happen, we know how to hold accountable the trucking companies that refuse to require compliance with this important safety rule.


Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based trial attorney practicing statewide in Georgia. A former president of the State Bar of Georgia, he is lead author of Georgia Law of Torts: Trial Preparation and Practice, a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy, and chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section.


What are unintended safety consequences of cutting health insurance benefits for school bus drivers?

There is a new budget proposal pending in the legislature to cut health insurance benefits for school bus drivers in Georgia. I know that state budgets are awfully hard, and that the Governor and his team mean well. No matter what Gov. Deal’s political critics may have said in the campaign, I know the man and know he is a good guy.

The rationale for cutting health insurance for 11,500 school bus drivers and cafeteria workers are part-time employees who work less than 30 hours a week, while other part-time state could not get health insurance benefits. The State Health Benefit Plan currently covers more than 630,000 state employees, teachers, other school personnel, retirees and dependents. The benefits cut could save the state more than $100 million per year. According to the Department of Community Health, the coverage for “non-certificated’’ school workers ran a deficit of $135 million in fiscal 2014, and this cut would cover most of that deficit.

Key legislators have pushed back against this proposal on the ground that these employees are an “essential part of the education delivery system.”

Aside from the issues of budget balancing and equity for other part-time employees, I am concerned about the potential unintended consequences for school bus safety.

School bus drivers work a few hours in the early morning and a few hours in the afternoon. It is difficult to combine that with a second part-time job. While many school bus drivers make as little as $8,000 per year, they drive a bus primarily for the health insurance benefits. According to State Rep. Bill Werkheiser (R-Glennville), “I predict if they pass it, 80 to 90 percent of the drivers in rural Georgia won’t drive.”

So what would happen if these poorly paid bus drivers quit due to loss of the health insurance that is their primary economic justification for driving a bus rather than taking some other minimum wage job? Who would drive school buses to transport Georgia’s children to their schools? What would be the consequences for safety?

Others who are qualified and experienced to drive large vehicles such as school buses might include truck drivers. But very few of them will give up a higher income to drive a bus. Years ago, school systems hired high school students to drive school buses. Hiring inexperienced 16 to 18 year old teenagers to drive school buses was such a great idea that the practice was terminated a long time ago.

In 2010, a trainee bus driver lost control of a bus on a rural road in Carroll County. A student was ejected and killed. In 2013, a collision of two school buses in Newton County resulted in 43 people being transported to a hospital. This month in North Dakota, 2 died and 11 were injured in a crash involving a school bus at a railroad crossing. Today in Texas, 22 kids were on a school bus that crashed at Fort Worth.

We have also seen a number of cases of children injured or killed during loading and unloading of school buses. Even an experienced dump truck or log truck driver would not be experienced in supervising a bus load of children and their boarding and debarking from a bus.

If in a few months we find 2,000 Georgia school buses are driven by inexperienced trainee bus drivers, transporting perhaps 80,000 children to school and back, safety will be affected and bad things will happen.

Politics and public budgets present awfully hard choices. And choices have consequences.

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Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based, board-certified trial attorney focused on large truck and bus cases. He is a former president of the State Bar of Georgia and currently chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway and Premises Liability Section.

Georgia Jury Verdicts on a Roll in 2015

As past president of the State Bar of Georgia and a seasoned trial lawyer, I’m impressed by the recent string of jury verdicts in Georgia, two of which exceed $70 million. Several of these were won by lawyers who, like me, have attended Gerry Spence Trial Lawyers College programs and closed door, members-only seminars of the AAJ Trucking Litigation Group.

Some of these verdicts will be compromised or cut in post-judgment motions and appeals, and some will be simply uncollectable. Prudent lawyers know that there is no appeal from a settlement, and big verdicts usually result from someone guessing wrong about what a jury will do. While I am too experienced to be giddy about any of this, it is true that a rising tide lifts all boats, as a history of good verdicts in a jurisdiction becomes a factor at some level in insurance companies’ valuation of cases. Of course, it no sense to try a case if an insurer promptly tenders policy limits near the value of the case, or if a verdict would be just a piece of paper suitable for framing and not collectible.

Here are just a few recent Georgia jury verdicts in personal injury and wrongful death cases:

  • $73 million verdict, Fulton County, Jan. 15, 2015.  Gas explosion in apartment during move-in caused burns to 50% of new tenant’s body. Gas line was allegedly left uncapped when gas was turned on. The defense alleged that the plaintiff accidentally opened the gas line himself in trying to light the water heater, but the jury apportioned zero fault to the plaintiff. The verdict included $17.9 million compensatory damages for injuries, lost earnings and expenses, $47.9 million in punitive damages and $7 million in attorney fees. I expect the punitive damages award may be reduced from $47.9 million to $250,000 under Georgia law.
  • $72.6 million verdict, DeKalb County, Jan. 12, 2015. Child was mauled by a pit bull. The defendant defaulted and the jury awarded $36.6 million in compensatory and $36 million punitive damages. The punitive award could be reduced from $36 million to $250,000. In light of the default, I have my doubts about collectability of any significant portion of the verdict.
  • $6.25 million verdict, Floyd County, Dec. 12, 2014. Motorcycle rider lost leg when ambulance that was not on an emergency run pulled out from a stop sign and hit him. Floyd County is traditionally considered a very conservative venue.
  • $3.6 million verdict, Gwinnett County, Jan. 16, 2015. This verdict once again disproved Gwinnett County’s old reputation for low verdicts.  Neck, back and shoulder injuries to two Hispanic, non-English speaking workers with immigration and language barrier issues. A Georgia Power pickup truck, driven by an attractive, articulate engineer who was pregnant at trial, struck them in the rear.  Ga Power fought liability saying plaintiffs slammed on brakes with no turn signal on, implying that they staged the wreck. The defense claimed that there were no actual injuries and all medical care was unnecessary and designed to get money in a lawsuit. Overcoming bias against non-English speaking undocumented Hispanic immigrants. The offer before trial was very low.
  • $945,358.99 verdict, Gwinnett County, Dec. 17, 2014.  Hispanic mom was rear ended by tractor trailer in rainy rush hour in construction zone. Trial was just to collect $25,000 underinsured motorist coverage after settlement with trucking company for $985,000. UM carrier offered only $5,000. Since verdict was for less than settlement with trucker’s insurer, nothing is collected from UM carrier.
  • $4.3 million verdict, reduced to $2.58 million for comparative negligence, Clayton County, Nov. 2014. Brain injury to railroad worker was struck by shrapnel fired from a makeshift “potato cannon” rigged by a supervisor. The jury found the plaintiff 39% at fault because he had helped build the potato cannon and was filming the nonsense when the device misfired.
  • $3.7 million dollar verdict, Fulton County, Jan. 14, 2015. 18 year old woman was sexually molested by an anesthetist in an oral surgery practice, who made video recordings of molestations of 19 women on a hidden camera. There will be an appeal.
  • $3.6 million verdict, Clayton County, Dec. 19, 2014. Negligent security claim against hotel by guest who was shot in the stomach while checking in at 2 AM. The verdict was reduced to $1.17 million after the jury apportioned the responsibility for the damages at 58 percent for the shooter, who wasn’t a defendant in the suit; 32 percent on the defendant hotel owner and 10 percent on the plaintiff himself.
  • $700,000 verdict, Fulton County, Dec. 2014. Woman who had lived in Chicago slipped and fractured an ankle on a patch of black ice outside an office park.
  • $140,000 verdict, Bibb County State Court, Dec. 18, 2014. State Farm only offered $3,500 on “minor impact soft tissue” case, but jury awarded $140,000 to plaintiff with significant preexisting conditions.

When is the fine print too fine?

There is an old maxim that, “What big print giveth the fine print taketh away.” In a case involving a used car sale, our Georgia Supreme Court this week said, “not so fast.”

To make out a claim at common law for fraud, a plaintiff must show not only that he relied upon some misrepresentation, but he must show as well that his reliance was reasonable or justifiable.  In the case of Raysoni v. Payless Auto Deals, LLC, 2014 WL 6090438, decided by the Supreme Court of Georgia on November 17, 2014, the question was whether reliance upon a used car salesman’s representations was reasonable despite fine print disclaimers.

Mr. Raysoni went to a used car lot. He asked a salesman whether the vehicle in which he was interested had ever been in a wreck or damaged. The salesman told him it had not, and gave a Carfax report that showed no damage to the vehicle and no indication that it had been involved in any wreck. Relying on these representations, he bought the vehicle. A couple of months later, Raysoni learned that the minivan, in fact, had been in a wreck and had sustained frame damage as a result.


Finding it was a jury question whether reliance upon the salesman’s representations was reasonable, Justice Keith Blackwell noted for the Court:

No one should make the mistake of thinking, however, that capitalization always and necessarily renders the capitalized language conspicuous and prominent. In this case, the entirety of the fine print appears in capital letters, all in a relatively small font, rendering it difficult for the author of this opinion, among others, to read it. Moreover, the capitalized disclaimers are mixed with a hodgepodge of other seemingly unrelated, boilerplate contractual provisions—provisions about, for instance, a daily storage fee and a restocking charge for returned vehicles—all of which are capitalized and in the same small font.

Plaintiff’s lawyers estimated the font size of that fine print was 5.6.  I dare you to read anything in 5.6 font without a magnifying glass.

Kudos to my friends Mike Flinn of Carrollton and Charles Cork of Macon for their diligence in taking this consumer issue to the Supreme Court. While I generally refer “lemon car” cases to Mike Flinn, the judicial disapproval of obscure fine print to contradict a salesman’s representations to a consumer.

The case vaguely reminds me of a one I tried in my past life as an insurance defense lawyer. In an employee dishonestly insurance claim by a car dealer, I was representing the insurance company in its own name. My chief witness was the bean-counting dweeb of a claims adjuster from central casting. And my task was to try to persuade the jury that a used car salesperson was honest despite overwhelming and incontrovertible evidence to the contrary. I never understood why the insurer I represented didn’t just settle that case.  It was not much fun to stand up and take that beating.

Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based personal injury and wrongful death trial lawyer. He is past president of the State Bar of Georgia, chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section, and a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy.

Airbag Defect Leads to Massive Recall

At least once a month for years, we have gotten calls from someone complaining about malfunction of an airbag in a motor vehicle collision. Usually it is a matter of an airbag not deploying in a situation in which it was never designed to deploy.

Most front airbags are designed to deploy in a direct frontal impact, and side air bags are generally designed to deploy in direct side impact. There are variations between models as to whether an oblique angle impact would cause an airbag to deploy, but generally a sideswipe collision will not activate an airbag.

Moreover, most people making those calls are upset but no one had a catastrophic injury in the wreck. The expense and difficulty of automotive product liability litigation is such that the cost-benefit analysis seldom justifies filing suit unless there is a death or catastrophic injury.

But now there is a widespread problem with airbags in a wide variety of vehicles deploying when they should not, potentially causing serious injuries to vehicle occupants.

Since 2008, there have been six rounds of recalls- the most recent involves 7.8 million vehicles, more than 100 models and 10 manufacturers, and focuses on vehicles equipped with defective airbags made by a Japanese supplier, Takata.  The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) urges all owners of cars listed on the recall to get their airbags fixed immediately.

                “The airbags are made by Japenese supplier Takata. The bags have faulty inflators than can rupture and send metal fragments flying out. At least four people have died in accidents related to the defect. A hot climate appears to trigger airbag failures, so the recalls are considered especially urgent for people living in Florida, Hawaii, and U.S. territories.”

Safety advocates say at least four people have died from the problem and there have been multiple injuries. They also say more than 20 million vehicles in the U.S. are equipped with the faulty air bags. Takata knowledge of the defect, reportedly, goes back to at least 2004 when Honda, the first manufacturer to launch a recall, received the first injury claim from an exploding “inflator” and reported it to the supplier.

The NHTSA warned people whose cars have been recalled during the past two years for faulty air bag inflators to take them to dealers right away. The inflators are made by Takata Corp., a Tokyo-based supplier of seat belts, air bags, steering wheels and other auto parts. So far, automakers have recalled about 12 million vehicles worldwide because of the problem.

“This message comes with urgency,” NHTSA said in a statement. The agency has been investigating the problem since June, and has cited reports of six inflators rupturing, causing three injuries.

Passenger or driver air bags or both could be affected depending on the vehicle. Toyota issues the latest recall Monday, covering passenger air bags in 247,000 older model vehicles including the Lexus SC, Corolla, Matrix, Sequoia and Tundra.

Like many of the other recalls, the Toyota recall includes areas that have high absolute humidity – south Florida, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands to name a few. Toyota in documents posted to the NHTSA website, said the company and Takata are still trying to pinpoint the cause of the rupture and to gauge the influence of high absolute humidity.

Absolute humidity is a measurement of water vapor in the air, while relative humidity, which is commonly in weather reports, measures air moisture content relative to the air temperature.

Toyota has been testing the air bags, and it found an unusually high incidence of inflator failures along the coasts, according to spokesman John Hanson. The investigation continues and the recall could be expanded to more areas, Hanson said.

Toyota says it knows of no crashes or injuries from the cars it has recalled. Neither Toyota nor NHTSA could say exactly how far inland the recall area goes or what states it covers.

Last week, two U.S. senators questioned why the safety agency is allowing the recalls to be done on a regional basis because cars could be driven to, or people could move to the high-humidity states.

They also cited the May 27, 2009, death of 18-year-old Ashley Parham of Oklahoma City. She was driving a 2001 Honda Accord across a high school parking lot in Midwest City, Oklahoma, when it hit another car. The air bag inflated and sent shards of metal into her neck, causing her death.

“Based on NHTSA’s open investigation, the agency will take appropriate action, including expanding the scope of the recall if warranted,” an agency statement said.

Takata has said it recognizes the critical role that government plays in public safety, and it is supporting safety regulators.

“Takata identified two processes that, taken together, could have resulted in elevated moisture levels in the propellant. Elevates propellant moisture levels, when coupled with thermal cycling in automoviles, could cause the propellant density to decline over time and such a decline in density could lead to overly energetic combustion during deployment of the air bag.”

However, Takata’s claims that the problem was confined to problems of one particular propellant machine that compressed a powder mixture into a tablet, during a brief, discrete period of time, have proven to be false.

Takata also claimed that no manufacturer other than Honda would be affected even though the propellant chemistry had been used in over 100 million airbags over the previous decade. Takata claimed Honda’s inflator design was not significantly similar to that of other Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) for which Takata supplied airbags. Takata reported to the NHTSA that a small number of bags, produced for another unidentified manufacturer during that time could not be defective because they had a different production process and better control systems.

In a statement made on February 19, 2010 Takata upheld that the problem had been fixed due to its “continuous improvement policy,” involving “numerous process improvements during this period, many of which improved the quality of the propellant and the inflators and enhanced the consistency of inflator performance.”

Faulty recordkeeping and poor recall notification procedures are other factors advancing the death and injury count. In numerous reports to NHTSA, Honda identified different impediments to identifying the correct recall population, ranging from confusion over which components and processes were confirmed as being within regulation, to a failure to trace defective airbags used as replacement parts.

Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based personal injury and wrongful death trial lawyer. He is past president of the State Bar of Georgia, chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section, and a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy. 

Autumn Stirs Sweet Memories

As our mornings turn cooler and trees change from green to yellow and orange, memories of the sights, smells and pleasures of autumns past come flooding back.

Memories of sights, colors and smells can stir our emotions and a deep, instinctive level.

When I see trees changing colors and the first frost on a meadow, I go back in time to autumns in the forests and fields of Lookout Mountain where we lived and Shinbone Valley where I went to school as a child.

The smells of new mown grass, burning leaves and hot cider stir memories of playing pickup football with other little boys in the end zone of the rural high school where my father was principal. That town, which could have been the model for the fictional Mayberry, had both a red light and a high school back then.

Smells of autumn also bring back sweet, and sometimes bittersweet, memories of high school football games and the excitement of fall weekends during college.

Once when coaching my son’s youth soccer team just before sundown in the last game of the fall season, trying to restrain our boys from running up the score too much, I looked across the field toward a line of brightly colored autumnal trees illuminated by the setting sun.

At that moment I felt a flash of epiphany, a peaceful feeling that, “It just never gets any better than this.”

Memory is a fascinating thing. While memories of color and smells may stay with us for life, fortunately most of us can’t remember physical pain. Otherwise, no woman would have a second child and the human race would have died out long ago. We can remember our reactions to physical pain, but can’t reproduce the sensation of pain in our minds. On the other hand, we can recall and relive emotional pain decades ago as if it were yesterday.

As we move through the fall toward Thanksgiving next month, let’s all pause to remember the good things and count the blessings of treasured moments of ordinary life.

The Importance of Creativity

Most folks think of creativity in terms of art and music. But creativity is important to breaking new ground in any field.

Ancient people viewed creativity solely as divine inspiration. That is still as important as ever. But by modern times creativity was viewed as a form of human intelligence that bridges the gap between routine productive talent and the vision to develop something new.

Creativity requires the ability to approach problems with both solid knowledge and a fresh eye, combining old principles in new ways. Creativity can be highly productive if it is accompanied by hard work and perseverance.

Creativity is not the same thing as IQ. The world is full of people with high IQ scores who are not creative and those with average IQ who are. Combine IQ, creativity and grit, and you really have something.

You may know of Atlantans whose creativity and perseverance made them billionaires. Sara Blakely got a creative idea for footless pantyhose, added bulge-hiding undergarments, and built Spanx from scratch within a few years. Ted Turner creatively combined unrelated elements to build a little billboard company into a cable TV empire.

Creative approaches to service abound. Millard Fuller combined old tools in new ways to launch Habitat for Humanity, which has built 800,000 homes for the poor. Gary Haugen conceived a way to enlist lawyers to combat human trafficking; now International Justice Ministry is working in many developing countries.

College degrees are not essential to creative genius. You know of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerburg leaving college to start Microsoft, Apple and Facebook. Elizabeth Holmes was 19 when she got an idea for a new way to make blood tests cheaper, easier and painless. She left school to start Thernos and is a billionaire at 30.

In law, most work is just competent use of familiar tools. When I defended cases for insurance companies, it was routine work that built a base of experience.

But sometimes we have to get creative:

  • An equipment distributor substituted a defective knockoff for a workstage sold with a forklift to a family business, killing the founder’s son. Georgia law barred suit against sellers. We figured out how to base a wrongful death case on the Fair Business Practices Act due to deceptive acts, classifying a forklift as an “office supply.
  • When a child was injured in a condominium pool, the condo association’s insurer was unmotivated to negotiate because it did not see that its insured had valuable assets to protect. We figured out how to levy on the condo association itself, then make pro rata assessments against unit owners. The insurer then settled quickly
  • When a child was injured in a condominium pool, the condo association’s insurer was unmotivated to negotiate because it did not see that its insured had valuable assets to protect. We figured out how to levy on the condo association itself, then make pro rata assessments against unit owners. The insurer then settled quickly.
  • When a truck towing an intermodal container freight trailer killed several people, the truck’s $1 million insurance was inadequate. Combining motor carrier and maritime laws in a new way, we pulled in the intermodal shipping and logistics companies. A judge denied motions to dismiss and we have a trial date set.

Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based personal injury and wrongful death trial lawyer. He is past president of the State Bar of Georgia, chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section, and a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy.

Paralyzed Man Can Walk Again Thanks to Cell Transplant

Over years of representing clients with spinal cord injuries resulting in paraplegia or quadriplegia, I seize upon any new development that offers hope for improving the quality of their lives and function.

For several years I have seen articles about the use of stem cells to mend damaged spinal cords. One of the most promising ideas has been the use of olfactory nerve stem cells from the patient’s own nose.

Now there is a report of this idea moving from animal research to clinical implementation with a human patient. The effect on our representation of paralyzed clients is that we have a new item of potential medical expense to seek that provides hope from recovery.

A Polish paralyzed man is able to walk again after a new therapy that involved transplanting cells from his nasal cavity into his spinal cord.

Derek Fidyka, 40, was paralyzed from the chest down when he was stabbed repeatedly in the back in a knife attack in 2010. Thanks to a pioneering therapy, he can now walk using a frame. The treatment, a world first, was carried out by surgeons in Poland who worked with scientists in London.

He said walking with the support of a walker was “an incredible feeling”, adding: “When you can’t feel almost half your body you are helpless, but when it starts coming back it’s like you were born again.

Professor Geoff Raisman, chair of neural regeneration at University College London Institute of Neurology, led the London research team. He said what had been achieved was “more impressive than man walking on the moon.”

The treatment used olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) that are specialist cells that form part of the sense of smell. OECs act as pathway cells that enable nerve fibers in the olfactory system to be continually renewed. In the first two operations, surgeons removed one of the patient’s olfactory bulbs and grew the cells in culture.

Two weeks later they transplanted the OECs into the spinal cord, which has been cut through in the knife attach apart from a thin strip of scar tissue on the right. They had just a drop of material to work with- about 500,000 cells.

About 100 micro-injections of OECs were made above and below the injury. Four thin strips of nerve tissue were taken from the patient’s ankle and placed across an 8mm (0.3 inch) gap on the left side of the cord.

The scientists believe the OECs provided a pathway to enable fibers above and below the injury to reconnect, using the nerve grafts to bridge the gap in the cord.

Before the treatment, Mr. Fidyka had been paralyzed for nearly two years and had shown no sign of recovery despite many months of intensive physiotherapy. He has also been going through an exercise program for five hours per day, five days a week. Fidyka first notices that the treatment had been successful after about three months when his left thigh began to put on muscle.

Six months after surgery, Fidyka was able to take his first tentative steps along parallel bars, using leg braces and the support of a physiotherapist. Two years after the treatment, he can now walk outside the rehabilitation center using a frame. He has also recovered some bladder and bowel sensation and sexual function.

Dr. Pawel Tabakow, consultant neurosurgeon at Wroclaw University Hospital, who led the Polish research team, said “It’s amazing to see how regeneration of the spinal cord, something that was though impossible for many years, is becoming a reality.”

This has not yet been approved by regulatory agencies in the US, but it is an advance that gives hope for the future.

Ken Shigley is an Atlanta-based personal injury and wrongful death trial lawyer. He is past president of the State Bar of Georgia, chair-elect of the American Association for Justice Motor Vehicle Collision, Highway & Premises Liability Section, and a board certified civil trial attorney of the National Board of Trial Advocacy.